Click to view/hide 3D structure
|smell||bitter almond-like||1.413e+0 µmol/L||licorice||details|
|smell||fruity, almond-like||1.413e+0 µmol/L||barley tea||details|
|smell||herbal, almond||4.244e-2 µmol/L||water||details|
|Link to the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database|
|IDENTIFICATION AND USE: Benzaldehyde is a strongly refractive liquid, becoming yellowish on keeping. It is used in cosmetics as a denaturant, a flavoring agent, and as a fragrance. Currently used in only seven cosmetic products, its highest reported concentration of use was 0.5% in perfumes. Substantial amounts are used in the production of derivatives that are also employed in the perfume and flavor industries. In the pharmaceutical industry benzaldehyde is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of chloramphenicol, ephedrine, ampicillin, diphenylhydantoin, and other products. |
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: It may cause contact dermatitis. It was positive in sister chromatid exchange assay with human lymphocytes from healthy non-smoking donors. Benzaldehyde was found to induce formation of stable DNA-protein cross-links in cultured human lymphoma cells. Benzaldehyde was found to lack significant activity against most human tumor cells tested.
ANIMAL STUDIES: It was was slightly irritating to the rabbit eye. Histological examination of the trachea and lungs showed a slight irritation of respiratory epithelium for nonsensitized guinea pigs. In the acute studies, benzaldehyde induced deaths and decreased body-weight gain in both sexes of rats given 800 or 1600 mg/kg/day and caused deaths in both sexes of mice given 1600 or 3200 mg/kg/day. In the 90-day studies, deaths occurred in both sexes of rats on 800 mg/kg/day and in male mice on 1200 mg/kg/day. Body-weight gain was depressed in male rats on 800 mg/kg/day, in male mice on 600 mg/kg/day and in female mice on 1200 mg/kg/day. Necrotic and degenerative lesions were seen in the cerebellar and hippocampal regions of the brain in both sexes of rats given 800 mg/kg/day, but not in mice. Renal tubular necrosis occurred in male and female rats on 800 mg/kg/day and in male mice on 1200 mg/kg/day. Mild epithelial hyperplasia or hyperkeratosis of the forestomach was seen in male and female rats on 800 mg/kg/day. In an inhalation study performed with rats, it was found that the principal histopathological change was the development of goblet cell metaplasia in the respiratory epithelium lining of the nasal septum. In 2 year studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of benzaldehyde for male or female rats receiving 200 or 400 mg/kg per day. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of benzaldehyde for male or female mice, as indicated by increased incidences of squamous cell papillomas and hyperplasia of the forestomach. Benzaldehyde was studied for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA100, TA102 and TA104, with or without metabolic activation. It was non-mutagenic under all test conditions with dose ranges from 33 to 3333 ug/plate. No induction of chromosomal aberrations was observed in CHO cells treated with up to 500 ug/mL benzaldehyde without metabolic activation or with up to 1600 ug/mL with metabolic activation.
|Source: DrugBank or Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)|
|Food Additive Safety (OFAS)|
|BENZALDEHYDE is used for FLAVORING AGENT OR ADJUVANT. More food additive safty information please view GRAS report.|
|EFSA's chemical Hazards Database : OpenFoodTox|
|This compound is found in OpenFoodTox with the name: Benzaldehyde|